“Three processes that are essential for active learning are selecting relevant material, organizing selected material, and integrating selected material with existing knowledge.
Selecting relevant material occurs when a learner pays attention to appropriate words and images in the presented material. This process involves bringing material from the outside into the working memory component of the cognitive system. Organizing selected material involves building structural relation among the elements – such as the five kinds of structures described in the preceding text [process, comparison, generalization, enumeration, and classification]. This process takes place within the working memory component of the cognitive system. Integrating selected material with existing knowledge involves building connections between incoming material and relevant portions of prior knowledge. ”
– Richard E. Mayer